Alice’s Ordinary People

Next month the Wilson County Public Library is showing an exceptional film on an “ordinary” person and their struggle for human rights during the Civil Rights Movement. Here is more from the website:

Alice’s life story reads like a history of the movement. Early on she fought the “Willis Wagons.” The second class structures were built to relieve overcrowding in those Chicago schools which served the African American community. Their very existence perpetuated segregation.

In 1966, Dr. King came to Chicago. Alice and her husband James Tregay, marched with him, often at great personal risk. It was at this time that Dr. King joined the Reverend Jesse Jackson, and the Reverend James Bevel to form Operation Breadbasket. Breadbasket fought racism on many fronts, but its main task was jobs for African Americans, particularly from those businesses drawing profits from the African American community.

Under the leadership of Reverend Jackson, the months that Alice and her “ordinary people” spent picketing led to real change. But it was through her Political Education class, that Alice had her most significant impact. Over a four year period, thousands were trained to work in independent political campaigns. This new force was integral to the re-election of Ralph Metcalf to Congress (this time as an independent democrat), to the election of Harold Washington, mayor, and to making Barack Obama, our first African American President.

Alice’s contribution is unique in American history, and an hour program can only tell so much. It is my hope that one day a book will also be written on this important subject.

– Craig Dudnick


Mercy Hospital: Medical Care for African Americans in East Wilson

Medical care in eastern North Carolina was conspicuously absent for African Americans until Dr. Frank S. Hargrave, a black physician,  conveyed property on 504 East Greene Street, where he had been treating black patients since 1905,  to Samuel H. Vick and J.D. Reid for the creation of the Wilson Hospital and Tubercular Home. Money troubles dogged the new hospital for next 17 years, but it still provided care for a growing African American population streaming into Wilson to work in the tobacco, cotton and mercantile industry. In 1929 the hospital was forced to close due to lack of funds. This did not last long however, and in 1930 it was newly incorporated as Mercy Hospital.

Until 1938 the hospital was supported through private donations from local tobacconists, the city of Wilson, and the Duke endowment. In 1938 the trustees sold the hospital to the city of Wilson to obtain a federal grant for $16,000, which allowed the hospital to expand from 25 to 40 beds. Mercy was then sold back to the trustees to obtain a $19,000 grant from the Ford Foundation. This increased its size to fifty beds and enabled the hiring of eight full-time employees.  With the end of segregation and the building of the new Wilson Memorial Hospital, Mercy Hospital closed its doors permanently in 1964 (1).

Dr. Frank S. Hargrave in the center with nurse Henrietta Colvert on the far left and Dr. William A. Mitchener in the 1910’s.

Many black physicians and nurses went through the doors of the historic medical facility, including the Dr. J. F. Cowan and his wife Annie Mae Cowan who came to work there in 1927.  Dr. J. F. Cowan was a graduate of Howard University and was brought to Wilson by hospital trustee, J.D. Reid. It was at the hospital that Dr. Cowan met his future wife, Annie Mae Cowan, who was the first African American woman in Wilson to take the state nursing exam

“Old man Reid, the banker, supervised the hospital,” recalled Annie Mae. “And his wife kept the books.”

When Dr. Cowan arrived, he was n’t very encouraged by the sight of the facilities after being used to the modern medical facilities at Howard Medical School. But they enjoyed their time at the hospital, which was then still called the Wilson Hospital and Tubercular Home.

Annie Mae recalled them having good relations with visiting physicians from Moore-Herring Hospital, which was the white hospital in Wilson, but where African American patients went for surgical procedures. She also remembered a screened in porch installed for tuberculosis patients, but she only remembered one patient suffering from that infectious, bacterial lung disease (2).

The Mercy Hospital Historical Marker will be dedicated at 3:00 PM on Tuesday, May 4.


1.Lewis, Necole. “Mercy Hospital: Emergence of the First Black Hospital in Eastern North Carolina.” Unpublished thesis, North Carolina Central University, 1998, pp. 1–47.

2.Railey, Mimi. “Mercy Hospital: Health Care in East Wilson.” Wilson Daily Times, 16 July 1983, p. 1C.

Shootout in Wilson, 1911: The West Gang



Wilson County Sheriff Sharp is on the left, his deputies behind him and the captured West Gang in front with the tallest being Lewis West and the shortest Ed Stallings- aka Stetson. All photographs were taken by F. Marchant.


The Mary Young house was where the shootout occurred and Wilson County Sheriff WDP Sharp points out where Deputy Mumford was killed.


Ed Stallings and Lewis West in profile. Judge Adams of Asheville is holding the two weighty tomes.


Lewis West and Ed Stallings aka Stetson


Wilson County Courthouse at the time of the trial.


The jurors of the case.

On February 3, 1911 in Wilson, NC a notorious gang out of Cumberland County stops by a house owned by  Mary  Young after perpetrating robberies in Dunn and Lucama when they notice two men coming up to the house.

Wilson County Sheriff WDP Sharp received a telegram from Cumberland County Sheriff McGeachy stating:
Fayet’eville, N.C,Feb.3, Sheriff of Wilson
County: Look out for three negroes, guns and pistols,
one a mulatto’ robbed Dunn Hardware Store.
They are headed your way.  Arrest them and notify.

     According to the court testimony found in the March 17, 1911 edition of the Wilson Daily Times, Sheriff Sharp sent Deputy Sheriff George Mumford into Wilson to try and locate the gang.  After Mumford gets into town he finds Chief of Police Onnie A. Glover and Officer H.A. Warren at about 10:30 am on the bank corner (not sure which bank, but all four banks were on Nash Street in 1911). Chief Glover and Warren go with Mumford,  first to the depot and then to Spring Street near Greene Street where they locate a group of men,  with one of them being tall and wearing a red sweater and a black cap, Lewis West, and another one fits Stetson’s compact frame.  They lose them until the early afternoon when   Officer Wynne, in plain clothes, carrying a shotgun, spots them in a near-beer saloon.  He goes to notify the other officers and when he returns to the saloon he finds the the gang has gone up Lodge Street towards Norfolk Southern (corner of Spring and E. Barnes Street).  Wynne finds them at Nan Best’s Eating House (According to the 1912-13 City Directory of Wilson it was located on 400 S. Spring Street, now Douglas Street) and actually passes them, hearing one of them say, “There goes the man with the shotgun.” To which West replies,  “I ain’t afraid of no damn man with a gun.”  Wynne keeps them under surveillance until he witnesses the gang  go into Mary Young’s house then retreats to get backup.
     Chief Glover goes up to the front door of Mary Young’s house with Officer Wynne while deputy Mumford approaches the back door with Officer Warren.   Mary Young answers and Chief Glover asks where the man with the red sweater is.  She replies that she hasn’t seen them and Chief Glover retorts that there is no use lying as he saw them come in (I suspect he meant Officer Wynne saw them).  Glover pushes open the door and sees Arch McLean and others, as well as Mumford at the back door. Mumford shouts “Look out Glover, they are in this room.”  Glover pulls his gun as West appears and slams the door in his face.  The door is also crashed on Mumford and he responds by going out in to the yard and returning with an ax.  After only one hit on the door, the firing commences from inside and the officers rush in.  They said it sounded liked firecrackers as 20-25 shots are fired.  Mumford says, “Oh Lord, Warren, I am shot.”
     Glover and West fire at each other at close range.  Glover is hit in the shoulder and puts his pistol in his other hand and fires again, hitting West.  Glover starts spitting blood and retreats to the porch of Nell Walker’s house next door and calls Officer Lonnie Lyon to assist him to the Sanatorium. West flees into a room where Wynne, from outside, sees his head in the window and fires his shotgun at him.   Stetson runs upstairs while the Young family barricades themselves in their rooms.
     After Mumford is shot, Officer Warren takes hold of Mumford’s arm and helps him out the door and to the steps.  Mumford slowly walks around house out of sight of Warren as warren goes over to Wynne  and hears more shots then someone yelling out that the chief is shot. He runs around the house and sees Mumford down as West escapes down Spring Street. Warren fires three shots at him, but he’s gone.
     Glover, from next door, sees West come out the house and approach Deputy Mumford, but is too weak to give  warning as he observes West point his gun six inches from Mumford’s face and fire.
     Witness Lou Artis is walking up the Norfolk Southern railroad when she sees a man come out of Mary Young’s house holding his abdomen and Stetson behind him.  Then Lewis West appears, approaches Mumford saying: “God damn you ain’t you dead yet? You came here to kill me and I am going to kill you.” Mumford pleads for him not to shoot him any more but West fires three times at his head.  Stetson comments from the porch, “That man Lewis West is a thorough man.”
     In the aftermath of the shootout, all of West’s gang escapes, but is slowly rounded up throughout the surrounding counties over the next few weeks.  Deputy Sheriff Mumford dies at the Wilson Sanatorium and is found to have ten bullet wounds in his body.  He was a widower and  survived by six children. Chief of Police  Glover survives his shoulder wound and later testified in court. Lewis West is caught in a restaurant in Maxton trying to pawn a pistol for a dollar after hiding in Robeson County swamps for a week.  He is found to have bullet wounds in his chest, hand and leg.  Stetson is captured in Selma, although some accounts say Kenly.
    The trial in Wilson, which begins on Wednesday, March 15, 1911, is one of the biggest spectacles the town has ever seen.  People pack into the courtroom to hear the testimonies of the law men, the witnesses and the West Gang.  In the end, Judge Joseph S. Adams sentences Lewis West to death by electrocution after a conviction of first degree murder and Ed Stallings, aka Stetson, is convicted of second degree murder and  sentenced to 30 years hard labor.  Other members of the gang get lighter sentences and Mary Young receives a year in jail.  After sentencing, Lewis West is overheard speaking to the bar saying that drinking and bad company was the cause of his deeds and he was sorry about it.
    In the wake of the trial, the newspapers, especially the Kinston Free Press, gives the white population a big pat on the back for not perpetrating a pogrom of revenge against the black population of Wilson for the murder of  Deputy Sheriff Mumford.  The tone is couched in paternalistic terms about the good African American citizens of Wilson.  But race relations were better in Wilson at the time than many places in North Carolina and a lot better than states in the lower south.  But it was a low bar and race relations would explode in 1930 with the lynching  of 29 year old Wilson County tenant farmer Oliver Moore by 200 white men.  But for now the West Gang was seen as interloping vagrants from Cumberland County and the black population of Wilson County was spared any blow-back from the robberies and murder.
West Gang members:
Lewis West
Ed Stallings, aka Stetson
Mathew Mebane, aka Brodie
Will Lane
Arch McLean
Dave Young
Tom Smith
Ed Purcell
Wade Williams aka George Brown
Jumbo Taylor

Possible location of Mary Young’s house across from the Norfolk Southern Railroad.  From a 1908 Sanborn map.


In 1911 Mary Young was living at 434 Spring Street, which could be the location of the shootout. Accessed from